Toilets and new technologies
This page is currently being updated. Please check back soon to find out more about what we are doing in this area….
Current research in this area:
Clean Team Toilets
Sewage connections are not a reality for many slum dwellers in rapidly growing urban areas in low-income countries. In a recent paper, Greenland and colleagues investigated whether use of portable toilet technologies have the potential to offer public health benefits to residents in the Ghanaian city of Kumasi who are largely reliant on pay-per-use public toilets. The study found that children in households with a “Clean Team” portable toilet used this facility from a younger age than those in neighbouring, non-Clean Team households, and their faeces were thus more often disposed of safely.
Understanding products within the sanitation supply chain
Inadequate sanitation in rapidly growing informal settlements is a pressing environmental health problem and an opportunity for business. A range of possible solutions exist, in various stages of development, but they are not well disseminated or evaluated. As part of a DIFD/Unilever-funded Transform project we are compiling a review of existing sanitation and services products and providers. We are collecting information on new and established enterprises along the sanitation value chain (see image below). We are interested to hear from you. Please submit a description of your company, together with indications where we can find the latest information to email@example.com.
To find out more about out work on latrine innovation listen to Jeroen Ensink in the webinar below as he talks about some of the new concepts for on-site sanitation based on bioadditives and pit design.
Publications related to toilets:
- Greenland K, de-Witt Huberts J, Wright R, Hawkes L, Ekor C and Biran A (2016) A cross-sectional survey to assess household sanitation practices associated with uptake of “Clean Team” serviced home toilets in Kumasi, Ghana. Environment and Urbanization.
- Marion W. Jenkins and Sandy Cairncross (2010) Modelling latrine diffusion in Benin: towards a community typology of demand for improved sanitation in developing countries. Journal of Water and Health 8:166-183.
- Wachira S, El-Fatih M, Gitau S, Freeman MC, Snel M. (in press) The use of urinals in Kenyan schools. Waterlines
- Making Sanitation Count: Developing and Testing a Novel Device for Assessing Latrine Use In Low-Income Settings. Clasen T, Fabini D, Boisson S, Song J, Aichinger E, Bui A, Dadashi S, Taneja J, Schmidt W-P, Burt Z, Nelson K. (submitted)
- Biran A and Jenkins M. Communal Toilets in Urban Poverty Pockets: Use and user satisfaction associated with seven communal toilet facilities in Bhopal, India. WaterAid http://www.wateraid.org/documents/plugin_documents/wateraid_brief_community_toilets.pdf (2011).
- Achieving the ‘good life’: why some people want latrines in rural Benin. JENKINS MW, CURTIS V. Social Science and Medicine. 2005 Dec; 61(11):2446-59.
- Jenkins MW, Cumming O, Scott B, Cairncross S. (2013) Beyond ‘improved’ towards ‘safe and sustainable’ urban sanitation: assessing the design, management, and functionality of sanitation in poor communities of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. (in press). doi:10.2166/washdev.2013.180
- Ghosh A, Cairncross S (2013) The uneven progress of sanitation in India. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. doi:10.2166/washdev.2013.185
- Ensink JHJ, Konradsen F, Cairncross S (2013) Sanitation and vector control. In: Cameron MM, Lorenz LM (2013) Biological and Environmental Control of Disease Vectors. WallingfordUK: CABI, Chapter 8, pp. 144-161.
- Clasen TF, Bostoen K, Schmidt W-P, Boisson S, Fung IC-H, Jenkins MW, Scott B, Sugden S, Cairncross S. Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007180. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007180.pub2
- Barreto ML; Genser B,StrinaA; TeixeiraMG, Assis AMO, Rego RF, Teles CA;. Prado MS; MatosSMA;. Alcântara-Neves NM; CAIRNCROSSS 2010, Impact of a City-Wide Sanitation Programme in Northeast Brazil on Intestinal Parasites Infection in Young Children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118(11): 1637-42. PMID: 2070554.
- Cairncross, S. 1988. Small Scale Sanitation London: Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene.
- Cairncross, S. 1988. Sanitation. In: In the Shadow of the City: Community Health and the Urban Poor. T. Harpham, et al. ed. Oxford, England: OxfordUniversity Press.
- Cairncross, S. 1987. Low‑cost sanitation technology for the control of intestinal helminths. Parasitology Today, 3 (3): 94‑98.